The authors report the synthesis of a thiophene-S,S-dioxidized indophenine-containing conjugated polymer PIDTOTT. This polymer exhibits unipolar n-type semiconductor characteristics with exceptionally high electron mobility (up to 0.14 cm2V–1s–1).
A (3E,7E)-3,7-bis(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]difuran-2,6(3H,7H)-dione (IBDF)-based small bandgap donor-acceptor (D-A) polymer (PIBDFBTO-HH) was synthesized, which contains a strategically chosen solubilizing electron-rich building block, 3,3'-bis(dodecyloxy)-2,2'-bithiophene (BTO) as a donor. PIBDFBTO-HH has a very small band gap of 0.95 eV, absorbing up to 1700 nm in the near-infrared (NIR) region, which enables its application in NIR photodetection. This polymer exhibits efficient ambipolar charge transport properties with balanced hole and electron mobilities of up to 0.16 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 0.14 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) in the absence of light. In the p-channel operation regime, the organic phototransistor (OPT) devices based on PIBDFBTO-HH demonstrated photosensitivities (P) of 130 and 40 under the illumination of 850 nm and 940 nm LED light sources, respectively. The photoresponsivity (R) under the 940 nm LED reached 450 mA W-1. On the contrary, in the n-channel operation regime, a negative photoresponse, namely a decrease in the drain current, was observed, which is accounted for the increased number of trapped electrons that offset the applied gate bias.PDF
Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) derivatives are among the most efficient materials studied for both polymer solar cells (PSCs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) applications. We report here the synthesis of new fluorinated dithienyldiketopyrrolopyrrole (fDT-DPP) monomers suitable for direct heteroarylation polymerization. fDT-DPP copolymers were then prepared to probe the effect of the fluorination. It was found that they feature deeper HOMO energy levels and smaller bandgaps than their non-fluorinated analogues. Moreover, some fDT-DPP copolymers show ambipolar behavior when tested in OFETs. For example, P2 shows hole mobility up to 0.8 cm2 V–1 s–1 and electron mobility up to 0.5 cm2 V–1 s–1. Inverted PSCs with power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 7.5% were also obtained for P5. These results reported here (OFETs and PSCs) confirm that the fluorination of dithienyl-DPP moieties improves the performance of organic electronics devices. This study is also evidencing the strength of the direct heteroarylation polymerization and fDT-DPP as a new class of conjugated polymers.PDF
We report the photoresponse characteristics of a pyrimido[4,5-g]quinazoline-4,9-dione (PQ) based polymer, PPQ2T-BT-24, which served as an active channel layer in organic phototransistors (OPTs). OPTs using this polymer showed very short rise time of 3 ms and fall time of 59 ms, photoresponsivity (R) of 0.24 and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 50%. When PC61BM was incorporated into PPQ2T-BT-24, a significantly shortened fall time of 8 ms along with a much-improved rise time of 1 ms were realized. These response times are among the best values reported for OPTs. The R and EQE of the devices using this polymer blend also increased to 0.88 A W−1 and 189%, respectively.
This review highlights recent major progress in the development of organic semiconductors as electron transport n-channel materials in organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Three types of materials are discussed: (1) small molecules, (2) polymers, and (3) n-doped small molecules and polymers. Much effort has been made in the modification of known building blocks, development of novel building blocks, and optimization of materials processing and device structures. These efforts have resulted in the achievement of record high electron mobilities for both small molecules (12.6 cm2 V−1 s−1) and polymers (14.9 cm2 V−1 s−1), which are approaching the highest hole mobilities achieved by p-type small molecules and polymers so far. In addition, n-doping of ambipolar and p-type organic semiconductors has proven to be an efficient approach to obtaining a greater number of n-type organic semiconductors. However, it is found that n-type organic semiconductors, in general, still lag behind p-type organic semiconductors in terms of carrier mobility and air stability. Further exploration of new building blocks for making novel materials and optimization of processing conditions and device structures are needed to improve the performance, particularly air stability.PDF
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